By J. N. D. Kelly

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I. 5: 'obedience to the faith1), its chief emphasis is on the believer's submissive acceptance of the gospel, with its proclamation of Christ's saving act. C. C. the writer means the Lord's sacrificial death, as a result of which the new covenant between God and His people has been ratified; being sprinkled with Christ's blood, stripped of metaphor, connotes accepting His saving death by faith and entering the new community inaugurated by it. R. Perdelwitz believed that a contrast is being drawn with the rites of Mithras, in which the votaries descended into a pit where the blood of a bull dripped on them from a grid.

V. 10); the final conflict of God and His saints with the Devil has been effectively won, so that they can face every sort of ill-treatment with confidence, even exultation, Linked with this is the remarkable emphasis on exemplary behaviour which characterizes the epistle. Not only should Christians be tenderly affectionate to each other, but they are asked to observe the highest standards in their relations with pagan neighbours and the civil authorities. There is no thought in the writer's mind that good works will procure them salvation, for he believes they have obtained that through Christ.

13) is well attested, and Mark's residence in Rome is also vouched for (Phm. 24; 2 Tim. iv. n; Papias in Eusebius, Hist. eccl. iii. 15). If the argument of the preceding paragraphs is accepted, both contents and tone are fully consistent with apostolic times. The objection based on the lack of personal reminiscences of Jesus is easily countered; not only does it overlook the sayings of the Lord recalled in the letter, but it reflects anachronistically a modern biographical preoccupation. As for the absence of references to Paul, such references would be out of place since some at any rate of the churches addressed cannot have been founded by him; and the movements of Peter himself after the activities described in Acts and Galatians are too obscure to form the basis of speculations.

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