By Dr. Louis A. Pilato, Michael J. Michno (auth.)

Advanced composite fabrics or excessive functionality polymer composites are an strange category of fabrics that own a mix of excessive energy and modulus and are considerably better to structural metals and alloys on an equivalent weight foundation. The publication offers an summary of the foremost elements which are thought of within the layout of a composite, of floor chemistry, of analyses/testing, of structure/property relationships with emphasis on compressive energy and harm tolerance. Newly rising checks, rather open gap compression checks are anticipated to supply better insurance of composite functionality. This booklet is an "up-to-date" remedy of innovative parts of composite expertise with literature reviewed till lately and comprises thermoplastic prepregs/composites and significant program areas.

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COOH /Ar, II C-N-R-N II 0 0 I H Polyamic acid Diester diacid Ac20/Amine t. I H n 1 A (150 -300"C) Equation 3 The intermediate, polyamic acid, is chemically (acetic anhydride and amine) or thermally treated to remove water and facilitate ring closure. The resulting insoluble and nearly intractable polyimide can be fabricated by utilizing the soluble polyamic acid (PAA) intermediate. Although the PAA is processable, it is hydrolytically unstable and thermal dehydration/devolatilization must be carefully controlled to avoid blistering due to removal of high boiling solvents and by-product, water.

Polyaryl ethers (PAE) can be prepared by a nucleophilic displacement of activated diary! halides by alkali metal phenoxides. A vast array of PAE are available by this technique [98-102]. An alternate technique which is the Friedel Crafts method can be utilized to prepare polyaryl ether ketones and polyaryl sulfones. 1 Nucleophilic Displacement Polymerization (1) Activated Halides The facile technique of preparing PAE involves the use of diary! halides which are activated by groups such as sulfone, carbonyl or nitrile.

The ensuing polymers exhibit good melt stability because the polymeric system is more responsive to end-capping agents due to the Lewis Base. Recently a poly ether ketone ketone, known as PEKK, was commercialized [118]. PEKK is prepared with a controlled amount of branching without any adverse effect on polymer properties (Eq. 29). C}o-Q + Q-coct ~ {o-o ~ 0-co~ "={ PhN02 CICO CO l n Equation 29 A comparison of PEEK and PEKK indicates that PEKK is about 10 oc higher in T g• slightly higher tensile strength but lower in toughness (Table 9).

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