By Pravin M. Shah (auth.), Navin C. Nanda MD, Reinhard Schlief (eds.)

` Nanda and Schlief have edited and produced an authoritative and updated reference publication for either skilled and green echocardiologists. I strongly suggest this booklet to these drawn to this box. '
International magazine of Cardiology, forty five (1994)

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_- _------------- ...... -.... 0 t x 10' [sec) Figure 7. Variation with time of bubble radius. one must also consider that they along with {) will change. as the bubble diameter decreases. Fox and Herzfeld [36] also raised the question of how micron size gaseous micronuclei could persist when surface tension, internal bubble gas pressure, and diffusion across the boundary, theoretically mandate rapid bubble dissolution. Recalling reports that seafoam is actually stabilized by an organic skin formed of proteins, they hypothesized a very thin film or elastic shell surrounding the gaseous bubble, significantly lowering surface tension and hindering diffusion.

Ziskin [2] was concerned with cavitation formation of gas bubbles in the heart or in blood vessels due to rapid jet injections at catheter tips. 1-5 mm in diameter) were formed. They persisted for several seconds and then returned into solution as bubbles entered the higher pressure areas of the blood stream. 4 g/ml, the corresponding critical velocity for cavitation was computed by Ziskin as 1225 cm/s. 5 mlls, beyond which cavitation would be expected. Meltzer's extensive studies considered the origin of echo-contrast [3].

Vaughan TW, Leeman S. Acoustic cavitation revisited. Acustica 1989;69:109-19. 52. Feinstein SB. Contrast Echocardiography and Tissue Perfusion, 38th ACMB Meeting in Chicago, III. Sept. 30-0ct. 1985 (Abstract p. 253). 3. Conventional echo-contrast agents. Hand preparation, sonication, properties GIAN PAOLO BEZANTE, DAVID HARPAZ, SHIMON REISNER & RICHARD S. MELTZER 1. INTRODUCTION The use of a contrast agent during echocardiography was first reported in 1968 by Gramiak and Shah at the University of Rochester [1].

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