By A Erman Tekkaya; Nooman Ben Khalifa

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Additional resources for Advances on hot extrusion and simulation of light alloys : selected, peer reviewed papers from the International Conference on Extrusion and Benchmark (ICEB), Dortmund 2009, Germany, September 16.-17. 2009

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A) (b) Fig. 3: Field of characteristic stresses in the deformation zone: (a) Distribution of zz stress tensor and (b) distribution of Von Mises stress. Microstructure model. The extrusion simulation was performed to achieve the local process conditions temperature (Fig. 2a) and strain rate (Fig. 2b), which are input parameters for the physically based microstructure evolution model. This model, based on contemporary understanding of microstructure evolution and the interaction of dislocations with microstructure essentials, gives a reasonable description of the hardening behaviour and accounts adequately for changes of material chemistry, in particular for age-hardened alloys.

During hot forming, subgrains develop by polygonisation and different dislocation classes can be defined [8]: mobile and immobile dislocations in the cell interior as well as dislocations in the cell walls. The mobile dislocations carry the plastic strain: ∆ε 1 ≅ ε& = ρ& m+ b Leff ∆t M (1) where ε denotes the plastic strain, ε& the strain rate, which was taken from the simulation, ρm the mobile dislocation density, b the Burgers-vector and M the Taylor-factor. Each mobile dislocation is supposed to glide a mean free path, Leff, until it is immobilised or annihilated.

A number of thermomechanical aspects such as plastic deformation, heat transfer between the material and the container, heat generated by friction, and cooling process after the extrusion are involved in the extrusion process and result in changes in temperature and microstructure parameters subsequently. Therefore a thermomechanically coupled modeling and simulation which includes all of these aspects is required for an accurate prediction of the microstructure evolution. A brief explanation of the isotropic thermoelastic viscoplastic material model including some of the simulation results of this model, which is implemented as a user material (UMAT) in the FEM software ABAQUS, will be given.

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