By Jeremy Bentham
Based at the assumption that people search excitement and keep away from discomfort, Bentham's utilitarian point of view kinds a consultant to ethical decision-making. With the "greatest happiness of the best quantity" as his target, the writer makes an attempt to spot the assets and kinds of excitement and soreness in addition to the ways that they are often measured in assessing ethical ideas. issues of intentionality, awareness, reasons, and inclinations aid Bentham's arguments. The textual content concludes together with his survey of goal and the position of legislations and jurisprudence, a desirable workout within the conception of social reform that explores conflicts among the pursuits of the bulk and person freedom.
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Additional info for An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (Dover Philosophical Classics)
The simple pleasures of the eye; independent of association. 7. The pleasure of the sexual sense. 8. The pleasure of health: or, the internal pleasureable feeling or flow of spirits (as it is called), which accompanies a state of full health and vigour; especially at times of moderate bodily exertion. 9. The pleasures of novelty: or, the pleasures derived from the gratification of the appetite of curiosity, by the application of new objects to any of the senses. V. 2. By the pleasures of wealth may be meant those pleasures which a man is apt to derive from the consciousness of possessing any article or articles which stand in the list of instruments of enjoyment or security, and more particularly at the time of his first acquiring them; at which time the pleasure may be styled a pleasure of gain or a pleasure of acquisition: at other times a pleasure of possession.
VI. These circumstances will apply differently to different exciting causes; insomuch that to a certain exciting cause, a certain circumstance shall not apply at all, which shall apply with great force to another exciting cause. But without entering for the present into these distinctions, it may be of use to sum up all the circumstances which can be found to influence the effect of any exciting cause. These, as on a former occasion, it may be as well first to sum up together in the concisest manner possible, and afterwards to allot a few words to the separate explanation of each article.
The first plea- sure issuing from your own bosom, as it were from a radiant point, illuminates the bosom of your friend: reverberated from thence, it is reflected with augmented warmth to the point from whence it first proceeded: and so it is with pains. Nor does this effect depend wholly upon affection. Among near relations, although there should be no kindness, the pleasures and pains of the moral sanction are quickly propagated by a peculiar kind of sympathy: no article, either of honour or disgrace, can well fall upon a man, without extending to a certain distance within the circle of his family.