By David K. Hildebrand, James D. Laing, Howard Rosenthal

Ordinal information may be rank ordered yet now not assumed to have equivalent distances among different types. utilizing help through judges for civil rights measures and bussing because the fundamental instance, this paper exhibits how such information can most sensible be analyzed.

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The prediction makes 11 errorstwo more than . This prediction approach to ordinal data has hardly been applied in any of the social sciences. The approach that has been widely applied involves analyzing "The more the X, the more the Y" form in terms of predictions about relative comparisons of pairs of observations. Consider bureaucrats Amy and Nixman. Amy can be more liberal (in terms of party affiliation). This would happen if she were a Democrat, and he was an Independent or Republican, or if she were an Independent and he was a Republican.

Lewis-Beck, University of Iowa Editorial Consultants Richard A. Berk, Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles William D. Berry, Political Science, Florida State University Kenneth A. Bollen, Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Linda B. Bourque, Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles Jacques A. Hagenaars, Social Sciences, Tilburg University Sally Jackson, Communications, University of Arizona Richard M. Jaeger, Education, University of North Carolina, Greensboro Gary King, Department of Government, Harvard University Roger E.

7/31, P4. = 2/31, P5. 3 = 9/13 Overall, the following identities must hold. First summing over columns gives the row total and summing over rows yields Page 22 Finally, Each cell (ij) in the table can be assigned an error measure, wij. If the prediction for the table identifies the cell as a success, then wij = 0. Often, an investigator will want to treat all errors equally. That is, all observations that fall into error cells are assigned the same "degree" or "amount" of error. Without loss of generality, it is then appropriate to set wij = 1 for every cell (ij) that is an error cell.

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